2020 Census: The United States Census is a national survey conducted every ten years to enumerate the population for taxation and political representation. The survey is conducted by the Bureau of the Census, also known as the United States Census Bureau, and is mandatory for all U.S. citizens. Why Census is important. It is also important for public administration; for the equitable distribution and allocation of government funds to different regions or districts. The population data is also used for planning education and health services as well as delineating electoral boundaries. The 2020 United States Census will be the 24th United States Census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the Census, will be April 1, 2020. This is the first U.S. Census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the option to respond on a paper form as with previous Censuses.